Down syndrome is sometimes also called trisomy 21. It is a type of condition in which there is an extra copy of the 21st chromosome (genetic material) so it is also called ——Trisomy 21. It causes delays and abnormalities in physical and mental development.

Many of the disabilities caused by Down syndrome can be life-long and some may shorten the expectancy of life. However, in some cases, most people are living happy and healthy with this disease. Recent medical advances, such as well cultural and institutional support to such people and their families provide many opportunities to live their life to the fullest.


In the case of reproduction, the cell (zygote) receives genes from both parents. It means that 23 chromosomes are received from both mother and father both, so there is a total of 46 chromosomes in the cell.

But sometimes the 21st chromosome is not separated properly so instead there is an extra partial copy of the 21st chromosome which eventually causes abnormalities in the child such as mental and physical disabilities.

According to the National Down Syndrome Society (NDSS), there are 1 in 700 babies in the UN born with Down syndrome.


There are 3 types of Down syndrome:

  • TRISOMY 21 It is the most common type of down syndrome in this type each cell has an extra copy of the 21st chromosome.
  • MOSAICISM This happens when only a few cells have a copy of the 21st chromosome instead of all cells. People with this type have fewer symptoms as compared to trisomy 21.
  • TRANSLOCATION In this type the children have only one extra 21st chromosome so total there 46 chromosomes but still a 21st chromosome attached to it.

Usually, when the babies are born with Down syndrome they have the following symptoms:

  • Flat Facial Features
  • Protruding Tongue
  • Undersized Neck
  • Tiny head and ears
  • Eyes that incline upwards
  • Oddly shaped ears
  • Underprivileged muscle tone

Children who are born with an average size of an infant will develop slowly than comparable to those who are normal.

People with Down syndrome usually have some degree of evolving infirmity. Psychological and communal growth postponements mean that the child could have:

  • Imprudent performance
  • Deprived result
  • Petite responsiveness period
  • Sluggish knowledge skills

Medical difficulties that may include:

  • Hereditary heart deficiencies
  • Hearing forfeiture
  • Inadequate vision
  • Cataracts (blurred eyes)
  • Hip problems such as Dislocation
  • Leukemia
  • Prolonged constipation
  • Sleep apnea (disturbed breathing during sleep)
  • Dementia (thought and remembrance problems)
  • Hypothyroidism (truncated thyroid function)
  • Obesity
  • Late tooth growth may cause trouble in chewing
  • Alzheimer’s disease may be later in life

People with Down syndrome are more predisposed to infections such as Respiratory infections, Urinary tract infections, and skin infections.


There is no possible cure of this serious disease but there is a variety of support and educational programs to support people with Down syndrome and their families. These may include:

  • Sensual skills
  • Communal skills
  • Do-it-yourself skills
  • Motor skills
  • Dialectal and Cerebral abilities